An arterial bleeding is life threatening. After all, the blood loss is large. Moreover, the closed circulation system is at stake and acute pressure drop occurs. When bleeding, the artery must be closed for a long time. Surgical intervention is often required in which the artery is bound, sutured or seared. In addition to the internal and external bleeding, a distinction is made between the arterial (arterial), venous (venous) and capillary (capillary) bleeding. Moreover, the vessel walls can be so brittle, as with many elderly people, that bleeding spontaneously occurs. Chronic blood loss is often due to clotting disorders.
Internal and external bleeding due to injury or illness
Bleeding ( hemorrhage ) means that blood loss occurs from the vascular wall. Bleeding can occur due to an injury or a disease process. In the event of an injury, or trauma, the blood loss may also be internal, such as a bruise caused by bruising of the subcutaneous tissue where blood vessels are damaged. Internal non-traumatic bleeding can have various causes. A stomach ulcer will sometimes affect a blood vessel in the stomach wall. And with lung cancer, the tumor causes lung bleeding in some cases . Bright red, foamy blood ( hemoptoe ) is coughed up. Blood is also given up for persistent respiratory infections.
When an infection affects a blood vessel, it is called septic bleeding . Natural bleeding, such as menstruation and venous and capillary bleeding as a result of an injury, usually stops on its own. Unless the wound is large. In the case of tumors pulmonary tuberculosis and other conditions, such as clotting disorders , bleeding is troubling anyway. After all, tissue change involves blood loss that can usually only be stopped with medical intervention .
Most common internal bleeding
Bleeding can occur throughout the body. Blood loss in the abdominal cavity is often large and severe, such as with a spleen or liver failure. The most common places where internal bleeding occurs can be roughly divided into four groups:
Nose and mouth
Nosebleeds in particular can be persistent and often recur.
With respiratory infections, tuberculosis and lung cancer, sudden bleeding is notorious. The coughed up blood and the sputum are bright red and foamy.
Disorders of or wounds in the digestive tract cause vomiting ( haematemesis ) when bleeding occurs in the esophagus or in the stomach. Blood in the stool can be detected in the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract .
Such as with a subarachnoid hemorrhage .
How serious is the bleeding?
Fractures can also cause a lot of blood loss in the muscles and other tissues. The blood loss can even amount to one and a half liters. In general, it can be said that the loss of one third
of the amount of blood in the body, ie about two liters, inevitably leads to shock. Three factors determine the severity of a bleeding:
1. Extent of bleeding
If more than half a liter to one liter is lost in an adult, bleeding is very serious.
Blood loss of one and a half to 2 liters and more is life threatening. Smaller amounts of blood loss are already dangerous in children and the elderly.
2. Speed of blood loss
Chronic bleeding has fewer direct consequences in
that regard than acute bleeding. In the first case, a serious anemia (anemia) develops insidiously . Growths in the gastrointestinal tract are especially known for this.
3. Location of the bleeding
Internal bleeding exerts pressure in or on the organs or in the surrounding tissue. Increased skull pressure as a result of a brain haemorrhage – or bleeding around the windpipe (danger of suffocation) – can of course have disastrous consequences.