- Planet Earth
- Functions of the planets of the solar system
- Main features of the planet
- Small objects of the solar system
Thorium. (October 2019).
The planets of the solar system are divided into two main groups – external and internal. The outer planets include 4 celestial bodies – Neptune, Uranus, Saturn and Jupiter. All are gas giants made up of light chemical elements – hydrogen, helium and oxygen. The inner planets also consist of 4 bodies – Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury. These planets are small in size, made up of rock and hard bark.
The closest to the Sun and the smallest planet in the system, only 0, 055% of the Earth’s size. 80% of its mass is the iron core. The surface is stony, indented with craters and craters. The atmosphere is very rare, consisting of carbon dioxide. The temperature of the sun is + 500 ° C, the back is -120 ° C. There is no gravitational and magnetic field on mercury.
Venus has a very dense atmosphere consisting of carbon dioxide. The surface temperature reaches 450 ° C, which is explained by the constant greenhouse effect, a pressure of approx. 90 atm. The size of Venus is 0, 815 Earth’s size. The core of the planet is made of iron. On the surface, there is a small amount of water, as well as many methane seas. Venus has no satellites.
The only planet in the universe that life consists of. Almost 70% of the surface is covered with water. The atmosphere consists of a complex mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and inert gases. The gravity of the planet has an ideal value. If it was less – oxygen would fly into space, if more – hydrogen would collect on the surface and life could not exist.
If you increase the distance from the earth to the sun by 1% – the oceans will freeze, if you reduce it by 5%, they will boil.
Due to its high iron oxide content, Mars has a bright red color. Its size is 10 times smaller than the ground. The atmosphere consists of carbon dioxide. The surface is covered by craters and extinct volcanoes, the highest of which is Olympus, its height is 21, 2 km.
The largest of the planets of the solar system. Larger than the earth at 318 times. It consists of a mixture of helium and hydrogen. Inside the Jupiter raid, and therefore in its atmosphere dominated by the vortex structure. It has 65 known satellites.
The structure of the planet is similar to Jupiter, but first and foremost, Saturn is known for its ring system. Saturn is 95 times larger than Earth, but its density is the lowest among all the planets in the solar system. Its density is equal to the waterproofing. It has 62 known satellites.
Uranus is 14 times larger than Earth. Unique in its rotation “on the side.” The slope of its axis of rotation is 98 °. The core of Uranus is very cold because it gives off all the heat to the room. It has 27 satellites.
Larger than the earth 17 times. Erases a large amount of heat. It shows low geological activity, on the surface there are geysers from liquid nitrogen. It has 13 satellites. The planet is accompanied by the so-called “Neptune Trojans”, which are bodies of an asteroid nature.
Neptune’s atmosphere contains a large amount of methane, which gives it its characteristic blue color.
Functions of the planets of the solar system
A characteristic feature of the Sun’s planets is their rotation not only around the Sun, but also along the Axis. Also, all planets to a greater or lesser extent are warm celestial bodies.
What are the planets in the solar system
- The planets of the sun
Tip 2: The structure of the solar system
The solar system is a combination of cosmic bodies where the interaction is explained by the laws of gravity. The sun is the central purpose of the solar system. Being at a different distance from the Sun, the planets rotate almost in the same plane, in a direction along the elliptical orbit. 4, 57 billion years ago, the solar system was born as a result of a powerful compression of a cloud of gas and dust.
The sun is a big hot star, consisting mainly of helium and hydrogen. In elliptical orbits around the Sun, only 8 planets, 166 moon, 3 dwarf planets rotate. As well as trillions of comets, tiny planets, tiny meteoroids, cosmic dust.
The Polish scientist and astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus in the mid-XVI century described the general characteristics and structure of the solvents. He changed his view at the time that the Earth was the center of the universe. Proven that the middle is the sun. The rest of the planets move around in certain orbits. The law explains the movement of the planets, formulated by Johann Kepler in the XVII century. Isaac Newton, a physicist and experimenter, emphasized the law of universal attraction. However, it was not until 1609 that the basic properties and properties of the planets and objects of the solar system could be examined in detail. The great Galileo invented the telescope. This invention personally allowed the observation of the planets and objects. Galileo could prove that the sun rotates around its axis and observes the movement of solar rays.
Main features of the planet
The sun’s weight exceeds the mass of others nearly 750 times. The attractiveness of the sun makes it possible to hold about 8 planets. Their names: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. Everyone rotates around the sun along a particular trajectory. Each of the planets has its own satellite system. Previously, another planet orbiting the sun was Pluto. But modern scientists on the basis of new facts deprived Pluto of the status of the planet.
Of the 8 planets, Jupiter is the largest. Its diameter is approx. 142,800 km. This is 11 times the diameter of the earth. The planets closest to the Sun are considered earth-like planets or internally. These include Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. They, like Earth, consist of solid metals and silicates. This allows them to differ significantly from other planets in the solar system.
The other type of planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus. They are called the outer or Jupiter planets. These planets are giant planets. Consists mainly of molten hydrogen and helium.
Almost all the planets in the solar system rotate satellites. Ca. 90% of the satellites are mainly concentrated on the orbits of the Jupiter planets. Planets move around the Sun along certain orbits. In addition, they also rotate around their own axis.
Small objects of the solar system
The most numerous and small bodies in the solar system are asteroids. The entire asteroid band lies between Mars and Jupiter, consisting of objects with a diameter of more than 1 km. Clusters of asteroids are also called the “asteroid band”. The flight paths for some asteroids are very close to Earth. The number of asteroids in the belt is up to several millions. The largest body is the dwarf planet Ceres. This is a block of irregular shape with a diameter in diameter 0, 5-1 km.
The original group of small bodies are comets, which are mainly ice pieces. They differ from large planets and their low-weight satellites. The diameter of the largest comets is only a few kilometers. But all comets have large “tails” that exceed the sun in terms of volume. When comets come close to the Sun, the ice evaporates, and as a result of sublimation processes, a dust cloud forms around the comet. The released dust particles under the solar pressure start to glow.
Another space body is a meteor. Once in the Earth’s orbit, it burns, leaving a glowing trail in the sky. A number of meteors are meteorites. These are bigger meteors. Their orbit sometimes runs close to the earth’s atmosphere.
Another purpose of the solar system is the centaurs. They are comet-like bodies, consisting of fragments of large diameter ice. According to their properties, structure and nature of motion, they are considered both comets and asteroids.
According to the latest research data, the solar system was formed as a result of a gravitational collapse. As a result of a strong compression, cloud is formed. Under the action of the gravitational forces of the dust and gas particles, planets were formed. The solar system belongs to the Milky Way Galaxy and is approx. 25-35 thousand light years distant from the center. Everywhere in the universe, systems of planets similar to the solar system are born every second. And possibly they also have intelligent beings like us.Related article
What is the sun made of?
Tip 3: What are the planets in the solar system?
Those who continue to believe that the solar system includes nine planets are deeply mistaken. The fact is that in 2006, Pluto was exposed from the Big Nine and now belongs to the category of dwarf planets. There are eight commoners left, though the Illinois government promised in its state for Pluto the former status.
After 2006, the title of the smallest planet began to carry mercury. For researchers, this is of interest, both because of the unusual topography in the form of murky slopes that covered the entire surface and the rotation period around its axis. It turns out that it is only a third less than the time of a complete revolution around the sun. This is due to the strong tidal effect of the star, which slowed Mercury’s natural rotation.
The other in the distance from the center of gravity Venus is famous for its “fervor” – the temperature of the atmosphere is even greater than the previous object. The effect is due to the greenhouse system that is present due to the increased density and consideration of carbon dioxide.
The third planet – Earth – is the habitat of humans, and so far it is the only one where the presence of life is accurately recorded. It has something that the previous two do not have – a satellite called the moon that joined it shortly after it appeared, and this significant event happened 4, 5 billion years ago.
Mars can be called the Sun’s most militant sphere: its color is red due to the high percentage of iron oxide in the earth, the geological activity ended just 2 million years ago, and two satellites were forced to pull among the asteroids.
Fifth in distance from the sun, but Jupiter, the first in size, has an unusual history. It is believed that he had every chance of becoming a brown dwarf – a small star because the smallest of this category exceeds it in diameter only by 30%. Larger than it is, the dimensions of Jupiter will not receive: increasing its weight will increase gravity under gravity.
Saturn is the only one of all the others to possess a noticeable disk – the Cassini belt, which consists of small objects and debris around it. Like Jupiter, it belongs to the class of gas giants, but is significantly inferior in density, not only to it but also to terrestrial water. Despite its gaseousness, Saturn has a true northern light by one of its poles, and the atmosphere rages with hurricanes and storms.
The next on the list Uranus belongs to his giant neptune, which belongs to the ice giants category. The dip contains the so-called “hot ice”, which differs from the usual high temperature but does not turn into steam due to strong compression. In addition to the “cold” component, there are a number of rocks on Uranus, as well as a complex structure of clouds.
Closes the list of Neptune, open in a very unusual way. Unlike other planets discovered by visual observation, that is, through a telescope and more complex optical devices, Neptune was noticed not immediately, but only because of Urano’s strange behavior. Later, through complex calculations, the location of a mysterious object was discovered.
Tip 4: Which planets in the solar system have an atmosphere
The Earth’s atmosphere is very different from that of other planets in the solar system. Having a nitrogen-oxygen basis creates the Earth’s atmosphere living conditions which, due to certain circumstances, cannot be on other planets.
Venus is the closest planet to the sun, which has an atmosphere and such a high density that even Mikhail Lomonosov claimed in 1761 its existence. The presence of the atmosphere in Venus is so obvious that until the twentieth century, humanity was under the influence of the illusion that the Earth and Venus are twin planets, and life is also possible on Venus.
Space research has shown that things are far from rosy. The atmosphere of Venus is ninety-five percent carbon dioxide, and does not release heat from the sun, creating a greenhouse effect. Because of this, the temperature of the surface of Venus is 500 degrees Celsius, and the probability of life’s existence is negligible.
Mars has a similar atmosphere in Venus, which is also mainly carbon dioxide, but with impurities of nitrogen, argon, oxygen and water vapor, although in very small amounts. Despite the acceptable surface temperature of Mars at a certain time of day, it is impossible to breathe in such an atmosphere.
In defense of supporters of ideas about life on other planets, it is worth noting that in 2013, planetologists examining the chemical composition of Mars Rock stated that 4 billion years ago, there was the same amount of oxygen on the red planet as on Earth .
The giant planets do not have a solid surface, and their atmosphere is dense in composition to the sun. The atmosphere of Jupiter, for example, is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium with a small amount of methane, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and water, which are believed to be located in the inner layers of this enormous planet.
Saturn’s atmosphere is very similar to the Jovian, and consists mostly of hydrogen and helium, but in several different conditions. The density of such an atmosphere is exceptionally high, and we can only speak with great confidence about its upper layers where clouds of frozen ammonia flow, and at times the wind speed reaches one and a half thousand miles per hour.
Uranus, like the other giant planets, has an atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. During the study, conducted by Voyager vehicles, an interesting feature of this planet was discovered: Uranus’s atmosphere is not heated by any internal sources of the planet and receives all energy only from the Sun. Therefore, Uranus has the coldest atmosphere in the entire solar system.
Neptune has a gaseous atmosphere, but its blue color indicates that there is an unknown substance in its composition that gives the atmosphere of hydrogen and helium such a hue. Theories of absorption of red in the atmosphere with methane have not yet received their full confirmation.
Tip 5: Which planet in the solar system has the most satellites?
Jupiter is not only the largest planet of the sun. This celestial body has the maximum number of space objects that accompany the planet. In astronomy, the latter are called satellites.
Jupiter is an interesting planet in the solar system that stands out from the total number of other celestial bodies in the presence of the largest number of satellites. Jupiter is the undoubted master in the presence of cosmic bodies that accompany him, and is held by gravity.
A beginning of the scientific study of Jupiter’s satellites was laid in the 17th century by the famous astronomer Galileo Galilei. He opened the first four satellites. Thanks to the development of the space industry and the launch of interplanetary research stations, it became possible to open Jupiter’s small satellites. At present, based on information from NASA’s space laboratory, it is possible to speak with confidence about 67 confirmed orbited satellites.
It is believed that Jupiter’s satellites can be grouped into external and internal. Objects located at a considerable distance from the planet belong to external objects. The lanes of the lanes are much closer.
Satellites with internal orbits, or as they are also called the Jovian moons, are rather large bodies. Scientists have noted that the arrangement of these moons is similar to the solar system, only in miniature. Jupiter in this case acts as in the role of the sun. External satellites are different from internal satellites in their small size.
Among the most famous large satellites in Jupiter are those belonging to the so-called Galilean satellites. These are Ganymede (dimensions in km – 5262, 4), Europe (3121.6 km), Io. as well as Calisto (4820, 6 km).